The Madrid 360 Environmental Sustainability Strategy, presented in September 2019, already pointed out in its introduction that “the compelling need to curb climate change led the European Union to establish clearer and more ambitious limits on gas emissions in cities”.
Cities are increasingly recognizing the role of the natural environment in shaping healthy and livable places that enhance human capital. With urban populations expected to grow by 2.4 billion people by 2050, innovative policies that protect and enhance the value of the environment are required to avoid substantial losses in natural habitat and create favorable places to live. Many city governments are now taking the lead in developing innovative policies to pursue green urban development.
Biodiversity in Los Angeles is truly unique. On one hand, LA includes the highest population density of all major U.S. cities according to the 2010 U.S. Census, and is known to be one of the most “park poor” cities in the country1, 2. On the other hand, LA falls within a “Global Biodiversity Hotspot” and the City includes an exemplary range of biodiversity and large natural areas. This study documents approximately 1,200 different native species recorded within the City, and perhaps more than double that are present, but unrecorded.
Africa is urbanizing late but fast. This brings many benefits but, as this report shows: thus far, urbanization in Africa, unique in a number of respects, is having deleterious and largely unchecked impacts on the natural environment; the degradation of natural assets and ecosystems within African cities carries tangible economic, fiscal and social costs; there are important opportunities to change the current environmental trajectory of African cities so that they move towards a more harmonious relationship between their natural and built environments.