Management, Recycling, Disposal

The Egyptian cement industry is the world’s 12th largest and a vital economic force supporting the construction and building sector that accounts for nearly five percent of Egypt’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).1 Today the energy-hungry industry is at a cross-roads: due to fuel shortages, the cement sector is being forced to diversify its energy mix. The study concludes that Egypt produces enough solid waste to satisfy the cement sector’s entire thermal needs.
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 Burning of garbage is prevalent in Latin America at poorly managed disposal sites and when it is used as a means of disposal at the household level in rural areas and other areas not adequately covered by collection. Waste burning is one of the major sources of dioxins and furans in these Countries. Current strategies to reduce these emissions include the long term process of converting dumpsites to landfills and expanding collection to areas not covered by the collection service.
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This study was undertaken to identify and assess the technologies available worldwide for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW), and to make a general assessment of the applicability of these technologies to various waste management 'settings' within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Region. Each technology was evaluated for a number of key attributes, including demonstrated commercial viability, economics, institutional factors, sustainability metrics, and environmental attributes, including emissions of dioxins and furans.
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11–13 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated every year in Ukraine. A per capita annual volume constitutes about 300 kg with the significant difference observed between urban and rural areas. The growth in waste generation is linked to the increase in society welfare, given a correlation between dynamics of GDP per capita and specific waste generation. According to various sources, an MSW recycling level in Ukraine varies from 3 to 8 percent, while in the European Union countries it is up to 60 percent of MSW.
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Every year, Russia generates 55-60 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) [1] with a per capita average reaching up to 400 kg per year. Furthermore, the per capita figures largely differ in terms of urban and rural areas. The amount of MSW in Russia is growing and will continue to increase as living standards rise, reflecting an existing correlation between the GDP per capita dynamics and waste generation.
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There are many challenges to the ecology and environment of Pakistan, one of them being the growing volume of solid waste due to increasing population, urbanization, and industrialization. The mountainous regions of Pakistan offer some of the most spectacular and fascinating landscapes and ecology in the world, attracting many domestic and foreign tourists; they, thereby, offer these regions an opportunity to develop their local economies.
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Plastics are an integral and important  part of the global and Thai economies. Since the 1950s the use of plastic products has expanded twenty-fold owing to their low cost, various functional properties, durability and wide range of applications. Mismanaged plastic waste from land-based sources, especially in the form of packaging, generates significant economic costs globally and in Thailand by reducing the productivity of vital natural systems and clogging urban infrastructure.
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Mismanaged plastic waste has growing economic and environmental consequences. USD 80-120 billion worth of plastic packaging is lost from the global economy each year due to lack of recycling and suboptimal value creation where recycling exists. Globally, 4.8 to 12.7 million tonnes of plastic leak into our oceans each year with Asia contributing to over 80 percent of this marine leakage. The Philippines is the third largest contributor with an estimated 0.75 million metric tons of mismanaged plastic entering the ocean every year.
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Plastics are an integral and important part of the global and Malaysian economy. Since the 1950’s, the use of plastic products globally has expanded twenty-fold, reaching 360 million tons in 2018 due to their low cost, various functional  properties, durability and wide range of applications. In Malaysia, the plastic industry contributed RM 30.98 billion (USD 7.23 billion) to the national economy, representing 4.7% of Malaysia’s GDP, in 2018. Mismanaged plastic waste has growing economic and environmental consequences.
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Solid waste management (SWM) is a vital responsibility of municipal governments worldwide and is one of the biggest challenges faced by urban authorities. Waste generation is increasing at a rapid pace, exceeding the financial and technical capacities of local governments to collect, treat, and dispose of this waste. In the South Asia region, India, Nepal, and Pakistan share one common geographic characteristic - the high peaks of the Himalayan mountain range.
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