Management, Recycling, Disposal

The West Bank and Gaza suffer from severe environmental degradation, including deterioration of groundwater and uncontrolled dumping of solid waste. These problems have been addressed in Gaza with the assistance of bilateral donors, but until the design of the Solid Waste and Environment Management Project (SWEMP) in 2000, they were largely neglected in the West Bank. Solid waste management practices in the West Bank are characterized by infrequent and inadequate waste collection services, improper disposal at open dump sites, and open air burning.
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The Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industryspecific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP)1. When one or more members of the World Bank Group are involved in a project, these EHS Guidelines are applied as required by their respective policies and standards. These industry sector EHS guidelines are designed to be used together with the General EHS Guidelines document, which provides guidance to users on common EHS issues potentially applicable to all industry sectors.
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For the urban poor in developing countries, informal waste recycling is a common way to earn income. There are few reliable estimates of the number of people engaged in waste picking or of its economic and environmental impact. Yet studies suggest that when organized and supported, waste picking can spur grassroots investment by poor people, create jobs, reduce poverty, save municipalities money, improve industrial competitiveness, conserve natural resources, and protect the environment.
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This study provides support to the Bank's ability to conduct client dialogue on solid waste management technology selection, and will contribute to client decision-making. The goal of the study was to fully explore the use of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Research Triangle Institute (EPA/RTI) holistic decision model to study alternative solid waste systems in a wide array of waste management conditions, using data collected from cities selected in each region of the world.
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Human activities create waste, and the ways that waste is handled, stored, collected, and disposed of can pose risks to the environment and to public health. Solid waste management (SWM) includes all activities that seek to minimize health, environmental, and aesthetic impacts of solid waste. In urban areas, especially in the rapidly urbanizing cities of the developing world, problems and issues of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are of immediate importance. This book addresses the problem by focusing on India.
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The overall amount of mercury in the mercury containing lamps (MCL) market in Sub-Saharan Africa is low compared to other sources of mercury, yet it can be further reduced up-stream by improving lamp lifetime and mercury content. One of the main objectives of this report is to provide policy-makers with the knowledge and tools they need when confronted with a potentially significant flow of end of life mercury containing lamps and the potential mercury pollution it could generate, either airborne or by seeping through the ground to water bodies.
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The Korean government introduced its Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system in 2000 that strengthened producers responsibility from the production stage up to collection and recycling. EPR system is applied to four packaging materials (paper packaging, glass bottles, metal cans, and plastic packaging), lubricants, tires, fluorescent light bulbs, batteries and electronic products.
 
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Solid waste management (SWM) is a major environment and health hazard in the urban areas of Pakistan. The World Bank is of the opinion that as cities economies are fast growing, business activity and consumption patterns are driving up solid waste quantities. In Pakistan the collection of waste is sporadic and the disposal is poor.
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Municipal solid waste management continues to be a major challenge for local governments in both urban and rural areas across the world, and one of the key issues is their financial constraints. Recently an economic analysis was conducted in Eryuan, a poor county located in Yunnan Province of China, where willingness to pay for an improved solid waste collection and treatment service was estimated and compared with the project cost.
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The report is to demonstrate the potential of the waste-recycling sector and offer recommendations for how it can improve. The study considers the institutional and economic mechanisms that would help realize improvements in the most efficient manner. The target audience of the study consists of federal and regional government agencies that make policy and administer Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management sites.
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