Solid Waste Management (SWM)

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Solid Waste Management
Gender Analysis when applied to the field of waste management, especially in developing nations such as India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, can provide unique insights into the waste sector while also serving as a tool for policymakers and program developers to improve and develop the waste sector. Many questions are answered against the backdrop of the waste landscape in each of the countries.
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There are over twenty serious vaccine preventable diseases with immunization estimated to save 4-5 million deaths annually. Typically, individual vaccination campaigns in a single country target a million to tens of millions children and during the last decade, 1 billion children are estimated to have undergone vaccinations.
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More growth, less garbage presents an updated picture of how waste generation can grow if the world continues along the current trajectory and how to consider changing that path toward lower waste levels. Waste generation is estimated to grow from 2.24 billion tons in 2020 to 3.88 billion tons in 2050. Historically there has been a correlation between waste generation and income per capita. This publication explores the possibility of decoupling waste generation, and thus consumption, from economic growth.
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The provision of municipal solid waste services is a costly and vexing problem for local authorities everywhere. In developing country cities, service coverage is low, resources are insufficient, and uncontrolled dumping is widespread, with resulting environmental problems. Moreover, substantial inefficiencies are typically observed. One solution commonly proposed is to contract service provision with the private sector in the belief that service efficiency and coverage can be improved, and environmental protection enhanced.
 
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Health care waste management (HCWM) is a process to help ensure proper hospital hygiene and safety of health care workers and communities. It includes planning and procurement, construction, staff training and behavior, proper use of tools, machines and pharmaceuticals, proper disposal methods inside and outside the hospital, and evaluation. Its many dimensions require a broader focus than the traditional health specialist or engineering point of view. The need for proper HCWM has been gaining recognition slowly.
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For the urban poor in developing countries, informal waste recycling is a common way to earn income. There are few reliable estimates of the number of people engaged in waste picking or of its economic and environmental impact. Yet studies suggest that when organized and supported, waste picking can spur grassroots investment by poor people, create jobs, reduce poverty, save municipalities money, improve industrial competitiveness, conserve natural resources, and protect the environment.
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Along with economic growth and improved living standards, waste from households, industries, and commercial or service establishments is expected to increase rapidly over the next years. Managing this waste is a hard challenge for the Government of Vietnam because of its substantial cost and lack of awareness and participation of people and businesses. Wastes can be classified according to: their form (wastewater, solid waste); their origin (industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, urban (municipal) wastes); and their hazardous nature (non-hazardous or hazardous).
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The overall amount of mercury in the mercury containing lamps (MCL) market in Sub-Saharan Africa is low compared to other sources of mercury, yet it can be further reduced up-stream by improving lamp lifetime and mercury content. One of the main objectives of this report is to provide policy-makers with the knowledge and tools they need when confronted with a potentially significant flow of end of life mercury containing lamps and the potential mercury pollution it could generate, either airborne or by seeping through the ground to water bodies.
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The Korean government introduced its Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system in 2000 that strengthened producers responsibility from the production stage up to collection and recycling. EPR system is applied to four packaging materials (paper packaging, glass bottles, metal cans, and plastic packaging), lubricants, tires, fluorescent light bulbs, batteries and electronic products.
 
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Municipal solid waste (MSW) management system is one of the key components of a country's overall environmental and resource efficiency framework. Inefficient MSW treatment in Russia today is causing negative environmental impact, and results in suboptimal use of raw materials and energy. If Russia optimized its MSW management policy and implemented modern technologies, by 2025 it could fully shift towards environmentally friendly MSW management system and recover up to 45% of waste.
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