Financing

Women, Business and the Law 2021 is the seventh in a series of annual studies measuring the laws and regulations that affect women’s economic opportunity in 190 economies. The project presents eight indicators structured around women’s interactions with the law as they move through their careers: Mobility, Workplace,  Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension.
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IFC conducted a market study of housing finance for women in three countries where cultural, institutional, and policy barriers to women’s access to housing finance have been identified, as have opportunities for financial institutions to tap this potential market. The three countries are Colombia (GDP per capita $14,999), India (GDP per capita $7,761), and Kenya (GDP per capita $3,461).
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Along with economic growth and improved living standards, waste from households, industries, and commercial or service establishments is expected to increase rapidly over the next years. Managing this waste is a hard challenge for the Government of Vietnam because of its substantial cost and lack of awareness and participation of people and businesses. Wastes can be classified according to: their form (wastewater, solid waste); their origin (industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, urban (municipal) wastes); and their hazardous nature (non-hazardous or hazardous).
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This report presents the main results from cost models that were developed as an input to the High Powered Expert Committee on Urban Development in order to estimate the investment, operations, and maintenance requirements for urban water, sanitation and municipal solid waste in India. The cost models are designed as tools that allow linking the various building blocks of the cost estimation to one another, and tests the impact of the main model assumptions on the overall investment requirements.
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The European Union (EU) sets the policy framework for municipal solid waste management that drives reform initiatives in new EU member states and candidate countries. The EU policies, implementation targets, and grant funding establish the enabling environment that transforms the solid waste management sector in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, and Romania. The EU directives guide member states towards agreed targets without prescribing in detail how specific measures should be implemented.
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Municipal solid waste management continues to be a major challenge for local governments in both urban and rural areas across the world, and one of the key issues is their financial constraints. Recently an economic analysis was conducted in Eryuan, a poor county located in Yunnan Province of China, where willingness to pay for an improved solid waste collection and treatment service was estimated and compared with the project cost.
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With rapid urbanization, population growth, and new economic activity, municipal solid waste is increasing at alarming rates, and is expected to almost triple in low and lower middle income countries by 2025. At the same time, solid waste management (SWM) systems in most developing countries are underfunded and suffer from a lack of planning. Improving SWM requires intervention all along the supply chain. Such improvements do not necessarily require major financial investment.
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Along with economic growth and improved living standards, waste from households, industries, and commercial or service establishments is expected to increase rapidly over the next years. Managing this waste is a hard challenge for the Government of Vietnam because of its substantial cost and lack of awareness and participation of people and businesses. Wastes can be classified according to: their form (wastewater, solid waste); their origin (industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, urban (municipal) wastes); and their hazardous nature (non-hazardous or hazardous).
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A risk assessment aims to identify current and future climate change-induced hazards to the providence 1 (P-1) and providence 2 (P-2) landfills, which are existing coastal waste management systems in Mahe island of the Republic of Seychelles. The assessment results provided valuable information that will be used to identify alternatives in technological, socioeconomic, and financing assessment.
 
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This report includes an assessment of the current municipal solid waste situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) including investments and actions needed for improvement. In order to minimize the required tariff, increase an assessment was made of the cost aspects of current operations.
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