Health

Violent conflict, a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape, has lasting impacts on human capital, and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has focused almost exclusively on sexual and gender-based violence.
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Health care waste management (HCWM) is a process to help ensure proper hospital hygiene and safety of health care workers and communities. It includes planning and procurement, construction, staff training and behavior, proper use of tools, machines and pharmaceuticals, proper disposal methods inside and outside the hospital, and evaluation. Its many dimensions require a broader focus than the traditional health specialist or engineering point of view. The need for proper HCWM has been gaining recognition slowly.
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The Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industryspecific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP)1. When one or more members of the World Bank Group are involved in a project, these EHS Guidelines are applied as required by their respective policies and standards. These industry sector EHS guidelines are designed to be used together with the General EHS Guidelines document, which provides guidance to users on common EHS issues potentially applicable to all industry sectors.
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Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) launched by Government of India has been the cornerstone of a decentralized, incentive based approach to achieve rural sanitation objectives. The scheme has developed strategic components to ensure coverage of sanitation facilities through financial and programmatic support for households, and for institutional and community sanitation. Construction of toilets needs to be complemented with mechanisms of waste handling to ensure a safe and hygienic environment in the rural areas.
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The global sanitation workforce bridges the gap between sanitation infrastructure and the provision of sanitation services. Sanitation workers provide an essential public service but often at the cost of their dignity, safety, health, and living conditions. They are some of the most vulnerable workers. They are far too often invisible, unquantified, and ostracized, and many of the challenges they face stem from this fundamental lack of acknowledgment.
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Maintaining the delivery of basic urban service—including waste collection and management—is becoming a growing challenge to cities grappling with the fallout from COVID-19. Every year the world generates over 2 billion metric tons of municipal solid waste. The World Bank estimates that by 2050 annual waste generation will increase by 70 percent—to 3.4 billion metric tons. In low-income countries, the volume of  waste is expected to triple by 2050, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.
 
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Cities are getting hotter as a result of growing urbanization and global climate change. The negative impacts of temperature increases are significant and touch nearly every aspect of urban life. Protecting populations from extreme heat is one of the key resiliency and sustainability challenges of the twenty- first century.
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The living environment is an important resource for Chinese cities to response the challenge of aging population. In an ideal living environment, elderlies can obtain necessary support when their physical functions gradually decline due to aging. Their service needs arising out of weakened self-care ability and sharp decline in family care resources can be satisfied in a timely manner. The loneliness that may be caused by transformation of social roles can be appropriately eased.
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The Safe Access Manual offers recommendations to develop safe access to mass transit stations in Indian cities. An investment of 15 billion USD has already been made across various cities to develop mass transit infrastructure such as metro rail and bus rapid transit. Improving access to mass transit in India can serve multiple objectives—provide safe, affordable and sustainable commuting options, create vibrant public spaces and serve its communities’ needs.

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