Gender

Climate change is set to exacerbate existing inequalities across regions and negatively impact already-vulnerable populations: the urban poor will be hit the hardest by the unevenly balanced climate change impacts. More than 1 billion members of the global population are slum-dwellers: they are the poorest and most vulnerable to climate risks due to overcrowding, substandard housing and living conditions, and lack of housing rights, physical infrastructure, and access to services.
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Today, the world is at a conjuncture where issues of exclusion and inclusion are assuming new significance for both developed and developing countries. The imperative for social inclusion has blurred the distinction between these two stylized poles of development. Countries that used to be referred to as developed are grappling with issues of exclusion and inclusion perhaps more intensely today than they did a decade ago.
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Transport infrastructure and services development has historically been largely gender-blind, in other words, it has not taken gender roles and men’s and women’s different uses of transport into account.
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Kenya is experiencing rapid urbanization. In 2016, about 14 million people (25 percent of the country’s population) were living in urban areas, but by 2030 that number is expected to increase to over 22 million, and by 2050 to 40 million—over 50 percent of the population (World Bank 2016). A lack of inclusive growth in Kenya’s cities has led to the proliferation of informal settlements and unequal access to services.
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Women, Business and the Law 2021 is the seventh in a series of annual studies measuring the laws and regulations that affect women’s economic opportunity in 190 economies. The project presents eight indicators structured around women’s interactions with the law as they move through their careers: Mobility, Workplace,  Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension.
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Disputes over land access and control often escalate into violence and conflict leading to dispossession and forced displacement within and across borders. Estimates indicate that 56 percent of conflicts are related to land and that most conflicts take place in developing countries. At the end of 2015, 95 percent of the 65 million refugees and internally displaced people were living in developing countries.
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Violent conflict, a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape, has lasting impacts on human capital, and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has focused almost exclusively on sexual and gender-based violence.
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South Asia is one of the region’s most vulnerable to the impacts of natural hazards, particularly climate-induced extremes. The frequency and intensity of climate-induced hazards are projected to increase in the coming years, threatening the safety of households and communities, their livelihoods, and the development gains they have achieved. Further, disasters and climate change events have differential impacts on those who are socially excluded or marginalized.
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IFC conducted a market study of housing finance for women in three countries where cultural, institutional, and policy barriers to women’s access to housing finance have been identified, as have opportunities for financial institutions to tap this potential market. The three countries are Colombia (GDP per capita $14,999), India (GDP per capita $7,761), and Kenya (GDP per capita $3,461).
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Evidence is mounting that secure property rights have positive effects for poor people in general and women in particular. The aim of this report is to review what is known about women's access to and control over land and real property in urban settings, identifying approaches to strengthening property rights that enhance women s agency, and sharing key lessons.
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