Circular Economy

A risk assessment aims to identify current and future climate change-induced hazards to the providence 1 (P-1) and providence 2 (P-2) landfills, which are existing coastal waste management systems in Mahe island of the Republic of Seychelles. The assessment results provided valuable information that will be used to identify alternatives in technological, socioeconomic, and financing assessment.
 
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The study comprised two activities, namely (i) Assessment of coastal waste management infrastructure in light of climate risks and (ii) Assessment of social aspects of plastics and solid waste management. While both assessments help to build capacity within the Government and relevant national stakeholders concerned with waste management, each assessment addresses specific issues:
 
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The study of Korea’s economic and social transformation offers a unique window of opportunity to better understand the factors that drive development. Within approximately a single generation, Korea transformed itself from an aid-recipient basket-case to a donor country undergoing fast-paced and sustained economic growth. What makes Korea’s experience even more remarkable is that the fruits of Korea’s rapid growth were relatively widely shared.
 
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11–13 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated every year in Ukraine. A per capita annual volume constitutes about 300 kg with the significant difference observed between urban and rural areas. The growth in waste generation is linked to the increase in society welfare, given a correlation between dynamics of GDP per capita and specific waste generation. According to various sources, an MSW recycling level in Ukraine varies from 3 to 8 percent, while in the European Union countries it is up to 60 percent of MSW.
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Every year, Russia generates 55-60 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) [1] with a per capita average reaching up to 400 kg per year. Furthermore, the per capita figures largely differ in terms of urban and rural areas. The amount of MSW in Russia is growing and will continue to increase as living standards rise, reflecting an existing correlation between the GDP per capita dynamics and waste generation.
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Plastics are an integral and important  part of the global and Thai economies. Since the 1950s the use of plastic products has expanded twenty-fold owing to their low cost, various functional properties, durability and wide range of applications. Mismanaged plastic waste from land-based sources, especially in the form of packaging, generates significant economic costs globally and in Thailand by reducing the productivity of vital natural systems and clogging urban infrastructure.
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Mismanaged plastic waste has growing economic and environmental consequences. USD 80-120 billion worth of plastic packaging is lost from the global economy each year due to lack of recycling and suboptimal value creation where recycling exists. Globally, 4.8 to 12.7 million tonnes of plastic leak into our oceans each year with Asia contributing to over 80 percent of this marine leakage. The Philippines is the third largest contributor with an estimated 0.75 million metric tons of mismanaged plastic entering the ocean every year.
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Plastics are an integral and important part of the global and Malaysian economy. Since the 1950’s, the use of plastic products globally has expanded twenty-fold, reaching 360 million tons in 2018 due to their low cost, various functional  properties, durability and wide range of applications. In Malaysia, the plastic industry contributed RM 30.98 billion (USD 7.23 billion) to the national economy, representing 4.7% of Malaysia’s GDP, in 2018. Mismanaged plastic waste has growing economic and environmental consequences.
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This paper lists several opportunities for China to advance MSW policies and practices. In addition to building on lessons learned from countries with decades of experience in implementing separation at source programs, including lessons on dealing with the informal sector, China’s extended responsibility systems (EPR) for different waste streams including packaging waste could be tested locally and if successful, could then be prioritized.
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Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is a crucial service provided by cities around the world, but is often inefficient and underperforming in developing countries. This report provides eight examples of RBF designs, each tailored to the specific context and needs of the solid waste sector in the specific city or country.
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